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Psychological-Educational Studies
2019. Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 5–21.
ISSN: 2587-6139 (online)

The Game as a Zone of Immediate Development of Preschool Children

Kravtsov G.G. PhD (Psychology), Head of the Psychology of Personality Department, L.S. Vygotsky Psychological Institute of the Russian State University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia, ekravcva@gmail.com
Kravtsova E.E. PhD (Psychology), Professor, Institute of Childhood, Family and Education, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ekravcva@gmail.com
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In the article, developing preschool education is considered in the logic of game activity. The authors followed L.S. Vygotsky is considered an imaginary situation as the criterion for the game and distinguishes two-positional nature as its essential characteristic. The article proves that the game in cultural-historical psychology has characteristics similar to the zone of proximal development. Developing preschool education is considered from the point of view of creating conditions for the formation and development of bi-subjectivity. According to the authors, developing preschool education should solve three problems - the task of forming psychological readiness for playing activity, the task of learning the game, and the task of using the game as a learning tool. There are two patterns that determine the developmental nature of learning at preschool age - this is the creation of situations in which the child should realize a strong-willed effort and purposeful development of a central psychological neoplasm.

Keywords: developing preschool education, zone of proximal development, game, two-positioning, imaginary situation, subject of game activity, game as a valuable activity, game as a form of life activity organization

Rubric: Developmental Psychology

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/psyedu.2019110401

For Reference


  1. Vygotskii L.S. Igra i ee rol' v psikhicheskom razvitii rebenka [The game and its role in the mental development of the child]. Psikhologiya razvitiya [Developmental psychology]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter Publ., 2001, pp. 56–79.
  2. Kravtsov G.G., Kravtsova E.E. Psikhologiya igry: kul'turno-istoricheskii podkhod [Game Psychology: Cultural-Historical Approach]. Moscow: Lev" Publ., 2017. 338 p.
  3. Kravtsova E.E. Vospitanie volshebnikov [Raising Wizards]. Moscow: Lev" Publ., 2019. 300 p.
  4. Kudryavtsev V.T. Stanovlenie svobody [The formation of freedom]. Sovremennoe doshkol'noe obrazovanie. Teoriya i praktika [Modern preschool education. Theory and practice], 2017, no. 1, pp. 12–21.
  5. Maksimov A.A. Psikhologicheskaya priroda komp'yuterno-igrovoi zavisimosti [The psychological nature of computer-gaming addiction]. Zhurnal obshchestva L.S. Vygotskogo [Journal of the Society L.S. Vygotsky], 2009, no. 2, pp. 109–117.
  6. Smirnova E.O. Detskaya psikhologiya: Uchebnik [Child psychology]. Moscow: Vlados Publ., 2006, p. 366.
  7. Fomicheva T.P. Rol' igry v obuchenii pedagogov [The role of the game in teacher training]. In Petukhovoi I.A. (ed.), Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya razvitiya. Materialy Pervykh chtenii, posvyashchennykh pamyati L.S. Vygotskogo (Moskva, 15–17 noyabrya 2000) [Cultural-historical developmental psychology. Proceedings of the First readings devoted to the memory of L.S. Vygotsky]. Moscow: Smysl Publ., 2001, pp. 204–206.


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