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Психологическая наука и образование psyedu.ru
2013. № 2.
ISSN: 2074-5885 (online)

«Стереотипная угроза»: самосбывающееся пророчество в сфере образования

Гулевич О.А. доктор психологических наук, доцент, факультет психологии, НИУ Высшая школа экономики, Москва, ogulevich@hse.ru
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В статье рассматривается феномен «стереотипной угрозы» – влияние стереотипов на обучение и уровень достижений представителей половых, возрастных и этнических групп. Анализируются явные и скрытые формы актуализации подобных представлений. Описываются основные механизмы их воздействия (актуализация социальной идентичности, негативные эмоции, посторонние мысли, усиление самоконтроля, сложности в обучении, уменьшение самоэффективности, усиление мотивации избегания, деидентификация с областью деятельности). Выделяются основные способы уменьшения «стереотипной угрозы», ориентированные на социальную идентичность (актуализация или формирование новой идентичности), стереотипы (от удаления стереотипных стимулов до демонстрации позитивных моделей поведения), задание (изменение инструкции) и индивидуальные особенности человека (повышение самоэффективности, обучение копинг-стратегиям). Отмечается, что знание закономерностей воздействия «стереотипной угрозы» позволяет повысить эффективность обучения.

Ключевые слова: обучение, стереотипы, ингрупповая идентификация, эмоции, рабочая память, мотивация достижения, самоэффективность, ролевые модели

Рубрика: Психология образования

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Литература

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